Such misconduct may result in the revocation of articles. Transparent disclosure is important when articles are submitted to journals to explain whether the manuscript or related material has been published or submitted elsewhere so that the publisher can decide how to handle the submission or request further clarification. Further information on acceptable secondary publication can be found in the “Recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing and publication of scientific work in medical journals”. Many or even most codes of ethics cover the following areas: When most people think of research ethics, they think of the questions that arise when research involves human or animal subjects. Working through an ethical dilemma to a satisfactory conclusion, making decisions that lead to good actions, and avoiding negative consequences and regrets are the basic principles of ethical practice (Noel-Weiss et al., 2012). Anonymity means you don`t know who the participants are, while privacy means you know who they are, but remove the credentials from your search report. Both are important ethical considerations. Indeed, they determine how we expect others to behave and why. While there is broad consensus on some ethical values (e.g., that murder is wrong), there are also large differences on exactly how these values should be interpreted in practice. Justice speaks in favour of equality and fairness of treatment. Hippocrates applied ethical principles to the individual relationship between doctor and patient. Today`s ethical theory must extend beyond individuals to the institutional and societal domains (Gabard & Martin, 2003).
Research misconduct is a serious ethical problem because it can undermine scientific integrity and institutional credibility. This results in a waste of money and resources that could have been used for alternative research. In the first area, the decision-making process faces problems such as difficulty in obtaining informed consent, disregard for confidentiality and lack of protection of patients` interests. The second area is the provision of certain treatments where caregivers experience conflict when asked to administer treatments they consider excessively aggressive, when pain management appears to be deficient, or when it becomes necessary to limit the use of life support. In the third area – workplace dynamics – conflicts arise when nurses have not been fully involved in the decision-making process or when they feel that the work environment makes it difficult to take into account bioethical issues (Falcó-Pegueroles et al., 2013). In extreme cases of self-plagiarism, entire files or documents are sometimes duplicated. These are serious ethical violations, as they can skew research results if they are considered original data. An IRB is an organization that reviews whether your research objectives and design are ethical and comply with your institution`s code of conduct. You verify that your hardware and search procedures comply with the code.
Cyber-mapping offers rich potential for traditional knowledge mapping, as described earlier in this chapter, but this knowledge is much more than a collection of “artifacts” that can be placed on a map. It is part of a knowledge system that is often fundamentally different from dominant Western systems. Chapter 19 addresses the legal issues associated with protecting communities` rights to knowledge and promoting a culture of respect, not only for individual knowledge, but also for the integrity of the knowledge system from which it originates. Existing rights, such as copyright, intellectual property and data ownership, have limited value because they are based on individual rights rather than collective or community rights. What is needed are completely new perspectives on legal and ethical issues, including greater consideration of soft law solutions. Chapter 6 provides an overview of the legal and ethical issues of publishing, with a focus on the publication of scientific journals, as this is the field in which most libraries are involved. Ethical guidelines for reviewers and reviewers are discussed as well as common ethical issues for editors and reviewers. The chapter also discusses relationships with authors and ethical issues related to access models for journals published in libraries. Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with right and wrong. It is a system of principles and rules of conduct that are recognized and accepted by a particular group or culture.
Bioethics covers a wide range of possible topics, such as ethical standards and moral issues arising from the practice of medicine, ethical issues in neuroscience, the protection of research participants, privacy issues raised by genome sequencing, and research involving children. Chapter 8 again examines intellectual property issues from the publisher`s perspective. Author publishing agreements, publisher intellectual property policies, and Creative Commons licenses are covered. The chapter focuses on how best to strike a balance between copyright protection and creating flexible re-use rights for readers. Clarify legal and ethical issues related to data protection and privacy, data use and operational interoperability It is important to make it clear to participants that their refusal to participate will not have consequences or negative effects.